Open Science: Sharing Knowledge in the Global Century
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Nevertheless, many scientists consider turning such a negative finding into something publishable a waste of time because it does not contribute to their individual profit.
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Providing access to data requires an extra effort on the part of the scientists to ensure data privacy. Even though many scientists work with non—sensitive data which can be shared widely, there are datasets that require scientists to use specific techniques to anonymise sensitive data. In some cases full anonymity cannot be guaranteed and scientists who want to make the data available nevertheless can use access control mechanisms.
All of these solutions require extra efforts on the part of those scientists providing access to the data, in addition to tasks such as making the dataset understandable to somebody who was not involved in the data collection process. A scientist who has invested a lot of time and effort into developing code can be reluctant to make it available to others, especially if her or his competitive advantage relies on the code. While the open source movement propagates making code accessible and reusable, many scientists do not share their code because it conflicts with their personal interest.
Many researchers stated that open science efforts are not rewarded by the current academic system. Some have argued that established academics can afford contributing to open science while researchers who are still competing for a position in academia are forced to invest all their energies in research activities that are rewarded and can drive forward their career. Since scientists are mainly evaluated on the basis of their publications in high—ranked and peer—reviewed journals, many researchers prioritise on securing as many publications as possible.
Posting shorter texts on blogs, exchanging knowledge via social research networks or sharing references to relevant literature in collaborative digital libraries is not taken into account when measuring the scientific output of the individual researcher. There is no standard format for citing data and code which makes it difficult to acknowledge these kinds of contributions.
Even though making data and code available is generally appreciated, the lack of incentives prevents the individual scientist from sharing research materials in most cases. The culture of a specific discipline has an impact on the attitude of the individual researcher towards openness. In a culture that generally embraces openness, such as for example in astronomy, it is easier for the individual researcher to share.
In disciplines where openness is not the cultural norm, it is even more difficult for an individual scientist to overcome various constraints. There are policy guidelines to foster open science such as for example the appeal to make data available after an embargo period. Scientists noted that there are few mechanisms in place to ensure compliance with these guidelines. As a consequence, some scientists perceive existing policy guidelines as ineffective because there are no sanctions for non—compliance. There is a lack of standards for sharing research materials. Even though there are repositories for publications as well as for data and code or collaborative digital libraries for sharing references, there are multiple standards that exist parallel to each other which impede interoperability.
On the one hand knowing which standard to adhere to is difficult for the scientist who wants to share, on the other hand unconventional material is difficult to find. Especially interdisciplinary work can be problematic to fit into existing formats. In the context of international research projects scientists can be confronted with potential legal difficulties on the grounds of being subject to different jurisdictions. Especially when it comes to data, there are various forms of data ownership.
Thus, a scientist who wants to share research outputs often faces a series of legal questions and a lack of clarity as to what complies with the laws, rules, and regulations. A scientist who wants to share her or his research materials needs to take the costs of providing access to it into account. Providing and maintaining the infrastructure is expensive.
The costs of publishing in an open access format need to be covered.
Open Science. Sharing Knowledge in the Global Century.
In case of a tight budget a scientist can be confronted with the lack of means to finance the access to research materials. In spite of the various difficulties which the individual researcher who wants to practice open science is confronted with, some interviewees also pointed towards potential benefits of engaging in open science activities. In some disciplines, such as astronomy, openness is integrated into the discipline specific culture. Some interviewees argued that sharing research output is not only in the collective interest of the scientific community but can also be advantageous for the individual researcher.
Several scientists argued that making their work accessible increases chances for potential collaborations. Moreover, providing access to research output can create a positive feedback loop.
Some scientists share their work strategically where the potential benefits outweigh the risks. Others are more intrinsically motivated and consider sharing to be an experimental form that can bring about benefits but where a sense of joy experienced from sharing knowledge with others also plays a role. A few scientists were willing to sacrifice rewards in some areas on the traditional track and engage in experimenting with novel forms of disseminating knowledge.
There were divided opinions concerning the development of open science. Some scientists argued that there are no major differences in attitudes towards openness between scientists from different generations because the common denominator that binds them is acting according to the rules of the current academic system.
Others argued that the next generation of scientists, who grew up in the technologically determined landscape where an increasing amount of resources can be accessed via the Internet, will have a more open approach to sharing knowledge and incorporate that into their research practices. Overall, several scientists stressed the significance of sharing research materials intelligently.
They argued that the key to sharing knowledge that minimizes the risk of intellectual property abuse is to develop an awareness of what material is shared with whom and at what stage of the research process. Moreover, they raised the point that not only the access to research materials but also their quality is essential. In summary, the interview material reveals the following trends. The majority of the interviewees perceive the idea of open science positively. Some researchers, however, are trapped in a social dilemma situation: they consider putting the idea of open science into practice to be an endeavour that comes with a series of additional difficulties for themselves even though they are aware that overcoming those difficulties is in the collective interest of the scientific community.
A few researchers indicate approaches to resolve the social dilemma situation by seeing personal profit in engaging in open science activities and thereby having the motivation to overcome the difficulties of putting open science into practice. The results show that researchers who want to practice open science are confronted with a series of obstacles.
In some respect the described obstacles echo popular arguments that have been voiced by proponents of open science on the one hand and open science sceptics on the other. The interviews focus on reflecting the current state of open science practices among researchers, highlight the prevailing importance of open science, and simultaneously point to the need of continuing to develop solutions that tackle the obstacles at hand. Grouping the obstacles to open science into systemic and individual ones implies that not only the problems but also the solutions are to be found on both sides.
When looking at open science through the prism of a social dilemma it seems natural to consider applying approaches to solving social dilemma problems to obstacles encountered in the realm of open science. Various solutions to social dilemmas can be found in the literature Kollock, It is important to keep in mind that many observations about social dilemma problems were developed based on designed experiments conducted in isolation.
Consequently these solutions hardly match the complexity of real life situations.
Open Science by Design: Realizing a Vision for 21st Century Research | The National Academies Press
Nevertheless, existing approaches to overcome social dilemma problems can offer valuable insights for overcoming obstacles to open science and complement existing initiatives that support open science practices. Based on an extensive literature review of social dilemma research Kollock suggests that there are three categories of solutions to social dilemma problems: motivational, strategic, and structural solutions Kollock, Motivational solutions take the actions of other individuals into account. Social value orientations, communication, and group identity all play a role. Applied to open science one can argue that the fear of free—riding is of less concern if priority of work can be proven by means of a digital timestamp, for instance.
Investing extra time and effort stops being a barrier if open science practices are an integral part of the research process and are valued by the research community. Rewarding scientists for developing their own tools and encouraging them to share their solutions means increasing the spectrum of available science specific tools. At the same time, it reduces the conflict between conducting research and developing tools which help to conduct that research.
Making negative results publishable and citable increases the incentives to go through the effort of putting the data into an appropriate format. Guaranteeing data privacy in the context of increasingly complex data relationships will remain a challenge but can be faced with increasingly sophisticated solutions in accordance with ethical considerations. The reluctance to share code can be overcome by adopting successful solution from the open source movement as well as rewarding scientists for sharing code and making code citable in a comparable way to other forms of scientific output.
Strategic solutions assume egoistic behaviour of the individual. Reciprocity, the choice of partners, and social learning are important factors. There are individual scientists who are convinced that making their work accessible is in their best egoistic interest and they do not shy away from sharing their scientific output even if other scientists are hesitant to do so. In structural solutions the rules of the game can be changed. In this case factors such as iteration and identifiability, payoff structure efficacy as well as group size are important.
Translated to open science changing the rules of the game refers to overcoming the obstacles on the systemic level. Integrating efforts towards open research practices in evaluation criteria is a transformation that requires time and careful considerations. In this context it needs to be taken into account that openness needs to be managed and its quality needs to be addressed. Cultural and institutional constraints can be diminished if open research practices are accepted, encouraged and rewarded within a research culture and by research institutions.
Policy guidelines are linked to the research culture and can be put into practice more easily if there is no conflict between policy guidelines and institutional guidelines. The lack of standards for sharing research materials is challenging because there is such a variety of them.
There are analogue problems concerning software and few solutions to develop universal standards and interoperability between various forms of systems. More clarity, especially with reference to international research projects, can be achieved by working with open licences and agreeing upon a strategy of sharing research materials that all project partners adhere to at the outset of a research project. Finally, more funding opportunities for open initiatives in scientific research would make open research practices more attractive to researchers.
These universal ingredients can be considered key factors in open science also.
Knowledge about established practices in a specific discipline is important for integrating open science practices into the research process. And trust plays a role in determining the degree of openness and the kinds of materials researchers are willing to share. Looking at specific successful open science projects serves as a source of inspiration for developing further solutions. Considering that open science can occur in many different shapes and sizes it is not possible to identify a universally applicable solution to overcome occurring social dilemma problems.
While it is evident that some form of governance is necessary, we strongly feel that fostering openness in research cannot simply mean forcing scientists towards openness. Digital technologies offer a broad array of tools that can be used to contribute towards making knowledge accessible as a commons. The discovery of future knowledge is a common good and a treasure we owe to future generations. In analysing open science through the prism of a social dilemma we have discussed obstacles to open science practices and ideas for overcoming these obstacles.
We have transferred solutions suggested for resolving general social dilemma problems to the realm of open science. We hope that our reflections contribute towards developing the concept of open science further. Moreover, we think that the field of open science invites to explore a broad variety of research questions from both discipline specific and interdisciplinary perspectives. In practice, future development of open science depends on the attitudes and activities of individual researchers as well as institutional initiatives to foster openness along the various stages of the research process.
Kaja Scheliga studied English and Drama B. At the Humboldt Institute for Internet and Society her research topic is open science. E—mail: scheliga [at] hiig [dot] de. He holds an engineering degree from the Technical University in Berlin and a Ph. Prior to his engagement in Berlin, he worked as a researcher at the Center for Design Research at Stanford University. E—mail: friesike [at] hiig [dot] de. Many special thanks to all researchers who participated in the interviews!
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